Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment  

Black and Wiliam’s publication is a must read. Many articles reference this one.

Formative Assessment and
Next-Generation Assessment Systems:
Are We Losing an Opportunity?
by Margaret Heritage 

Another important paper.


What is Formative Assessment  

Short but clarifies the definition very well. 

Conditions Under Which Assessment Supports Students’ Learning

Very comprehensive article. Well worth reading. 

Formative Assessment Examples of Practice
Very Good Article  

Shows examples of what is and what is not.  

Wikipedia’s Formative Assessment Page
Great place to start from  

From Formative Assessment to Assessment FOR Learning:
A Path to Success in Standards-Based Schools
Rick Stiggins  

A Critical Review of Research on Formative Assessment:
The Limited Scientific Evidence of the Impact of Formative
Assessment in Education  

A critical analysis of the seminal literature on formative assessment,
beginning with Black and Wiliam (1998), and extending through current published materials  

The Concept of Formative Assessment  

By Carol Boston  

Attributes of Effective Formative Assessment  

Council of Chief State School Officers’ (CCSSO)  


This website provides many articles.  


Toolkit98 is designed to assist classroom teachers to become better assessors of student learning.  

The Concept of Formative Assessment  

Formative Assessment
By Heather Coffey  

This reference article discusses the history, concept, and application of formative assessment.  

Formative Assessment: Mapping the Road to Success
A White Paper Prepared for the Princeton Review (12 pages)  

A must-read covering many aspects of Formative Assessment.  

The Quest for Quality (8 pages)
Educational Leadership  

This article teaches how to find a balance and successfully estimate student achievement.  

Formative Assessment: revisiting the territory (8 pages)  

D. Royce Sadler  

Formative assessment is “intended to provide feedback on learning performance to improve and accelerate learning”.  

Assessment Training Institute  

Assessment Training Institute Papers  

Many good articles here.  

Formative Assessment, Assessment for Learning
Prairie South School Division  

This website provides curriculum for student learning and student goal setting  

Linking Formative Assessment to

Formative Assessment:
What Do Teachers Need to Know and Do? (6 pages)  

By Margaret Heritage  

A description of what the skillful use of formative assessment looks like.  

The Validity of Formative Assessments
By Terry Crooks  

Alaska’s School Improvement Resources
“Collaborating for Student Success”  

Allowing student thinking to guide instruction is creating significant gain in learning.  

What is Formative Evaluation
Matthew K. Burns  

Another nice article.  

Assessment for Learning
Formative Assessment

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